The Gold Diggers

Lyceum Theatre / October 13, 1919

(starring Ina Claire / 282 performances)

The Gold Diggers opened Sept. 30, 1919 and ran through June 1920 at the Lyceum Theatre.


"In the years before unions enabled chorus girls to earn a living wage, rich businessmen sought the company of these beautiful and lively performers. Many believed that the men preyed upon the women by offering them expensive gifts in return for certain favors. In The Gold Diggers, Avery Hopwood turns the tables in true comic fashion by making the women a lot more predatory and wily than the men. 'Why shouldn’t we girls capitalize on what nature has given us? We’ve got to live – and what’s more, we’ve made up our minds to live darned well!' One wonders who is exploiting whom in this situation comedy where young and middle aged, single and married, innocent and world-wise, look for love, or at least a comfortable life.

The Neil Simon of his day, Avery Hopwood was one of the most financially successful – and funniest – playwrights of the 1920s. The Gold Diggers, written in 1919, was a big hit, spawned numerous movie adaptations, and forever coined the phrase ‘gold digger’ as part of the English vernacular.

Hopwood wrote The Gold Diggers for producer David Belasco, who was looking for a ‘star’ vehicle for one of his starlets, Ina Claire. Hopwood had gotten the idea for the play while sitting in the Ritz in New York with Kay Laurel. As the two sat waiting, Laurel called out to a girlfriend who had just entered: 'Hello, Gold Digger.' 'Gold Digger?' asked Hopwood. “Yes,” responded Laurel, 'Why shouldn’t we girls capitalize what nature has given us — our good looks and our ability to please and entertain men? We’ve got to live- and what’s more, we’ve made up our minds to live darned well!' Hopwood’s play would ultimately forever coin the phrase ‘gold digger’ as someone who uses charm to extract money or gifts from others.

The Gold Diggers opened on Broadway at the Lyceum Theatre on September 30, 1919. The show presented beautiful women, the latest in Bendel fashions, and a questionable, but entertaining, portrayal of the lives of chorus girls. After Prohibition struck in 1920, audiences reveled in the champagne atmosphere that surrounded the performance, billed as the most “sparkling” comedy in town. It ran for two years, the second longest running play at that time and one of Hopwood’s record-breaking four concurrent running shows on Broadway in 1920. The play ran in London in 1926 with Tallulah Bankhead in the lead role of Jerry Lamar for 179 performances. It was first adapted for the screen in 1929 as The Gold Diggers of Broadway followed by The Gold Diggers of 1933, 1935, and 1937 with choreography by Busby Berkley.

The story follows innocent and demure chorus girl Violet Dayne who has fallen in love with the well-to-do Wally Lee. Unfortunately, Wally’s uncle Stephen disapproves of the match so Violet turns to her friend, mentor, and fellow chorus girl Jerry Lamar for help. When Stephen arrives to save his young nephew from the machinations of the girls, he mistakes Jerry for Violet. Using a bit of reverse psychology, Jerry attempts to shock him, hoping to have him relent when he meets the real Violet, only to have it backfire when Stephen falls for her. When Jerry confesses the deception, Stephen storms out. In the end, however, love and happiness prevail for both Violet and Jerry."

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